When mobile phones can change shape, how should we control them?


This framework describes four different types of control, seen from the perspective of the user.

In this work, we propose a framework for sharing control of shape change events.  The framework considers whether the shape change is: 1) directly controlled by the user’s explicit interactions; 2) negotiated with the user; 3) indirectly controlled by the users actions; 4) fully controlled by the system. The four types are described through design examples using ReFlex, a shape-changing interface in the form of a smartphone. The paper concludes that shape-changing interfaces tend to assign the control to either the user or the underlying system, while few (e.g. [16,28]) consider sharing the control between the user and the system.

The visual facilitator at the TEI2016 conference summarized the work in the following sketchnote:

ReFlex Shape Changing Mobile Phone Majken Kirkegård Rasmussen, Timothy Merritt, Miguel Bruns Alonso, and Marianne Graves Petersen. 2016. Balancing User and System Control in Shape-Changing Interfaces: a Designerly Exploration. In Proceedings of the TEI ’16: Tenth International Conference on Tangible, Embedded, and Embodied Interaction (TEI ’16). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 202-210. DOI=http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2839462.2839499

An author’s copy of the paper is available here